Fluent Bit provides different Input Plugins to gather information from different sources, some of them just collect data from log files while others can gather metrics information from the operating system. There are many plugins for different needs.
When an input plugin is loaded, an internal instance is created. Every instance has its own and independent configuration. Configuration keys are often called properties.
Every input plugin has its own documentation section where it's specified how it can be used and what properties are available.